In the year 2000, IMO
joined forces with the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP), member governments and the shipping
industry to assist less-industrialised countries to tackle the ballast
The full title of this project was Removal of Barriers to the Effective
Implementation of Ballast Water Control and Management Measures in Developing
Countries. It was more simply referred to as the Global Ballast Water
Management Programme, or GloBallast.
This programme assisted developing countries to
implement effective measures to control the introduction of foreign
marine species. These were intended to represent the six main developing
regions of the World, as shown on the map below:
As these sites were so successful, they have since been replicated
throughout each region. Lessons learned from the initial
demonstration sites have been valuable in improving ballast water management
and reducing the translocation of harmful marine species in each region.
The programme provided a mechanism for the ongoing provision of
technical assistance to less industrialised countries to implement the
new IMO ballast water regime when it comes into force, through the continuation
of an in-house ballast water
unit at IMO. This
has built on the groundwork conducted by the first-phase Programme Coordination
The broad Development Objectives of the
programme were to assist developing countries to:
- reduce the transfer of harmful organisms from ships’ ballast water;
- implement the IMO ballast water guidelines; and
- prepare for implementation of the newly adopted IMO Ballast Water
In order to achieve the broad Development Objectives,
the programme had a number of Immediate Objectives, which were linked
to specific Outputs and Activities. These were:
- Programme coordination and management.
- Communication, education and awareness.
- Risk assessment
- Ballast water management measures.
- Compliance, enforcement and monitoring.
- Regional cooperation and replication.
- Resources and financing.
An extremely important consideration was to ensure coordination
between each site and consistency with the international regime. As
shipping is an international industry, the only effective way to address
shipping related issues is through a standardised international system.
This has been one of the hallmarks of the success of IMO in its 50 year
history. The avoidance of unilateral responses by individual states
was critical to the success of the programme.
Timeline and Funding
This was a four-year programme (initially three years
from March 2000 to March 2003, with an extension to December 2004).
The total budget was US$10.2 million, comprising:
US$7.39 million from GEF
US$2.8 million in co-funding from the six Pilot Countries.
The programme was implemented by UNDP and executed
by IMO, under the GEF International Waters portfolio.
A three person Programme Cordination Unit (PCU) was established
within the Marine Environment Division (MED) at IMO headquarters in
The PCU had the benefit of the support, facilities and services of IMO.
High priority was given to coordinating the activities of the programme
with the broader activities of IMO, especially the adoption of the new
Ballast Water Convention.
Country Focal Points (CFPs) and Assistant CFPs were established
in each of the six Pilot Countries, supported by inter-ministerial/cross-sectoral
Country Project Task Forces (CPTFs).
Overall, the programme was advised by a Global Project Task Force (GPTF).
This was comprised of representatives of GEF, UNDP, IMO, the six participating
countries, the shipping industry, international environmental NGOs and
possible other parties that were able to contribute to the programme
in a meaningful way.
- Four years - March 2000 - March 2003 (with an extension to
31 December 2004)
- Shipping and port industries, international environmental
non-government organization, other parties as programme develops.
- Establish PCU at IMO, comprising Chief Technical Adviser,
Technical Advisers, Programme Assistant and support.
- Establish Info/Comms Network - including web-site,
collections, newsletter and
an information clearing house.
- Establish and support Lead Agency, Country Focal Point (CFP),
Country Project Task Force (CPTF) and CFP Assistant in each
- Establish global coordination arrangements - Global Project
- Develop and implement communication, education and awareness
- Undertake Ballast Water Risk Assessments
to assess risk of introductions of marine species at each demonstration
- Undertake Port Baseline Surveys of native biota and introduced
marine species at each demonstration site.
- Develop Training Packages to train Lead Agency, port and shipping
personnel in ballast water management measures as contained
in IMO guidelines.
- Review legislation relevant to ballast water in each country
and advise/assist improvements.
- Develop and implement national ballast water management plans
for each Pilot Country.
- Hold global R&D symposiums to review scope for new ballast
water management and treatment measures and coordinate R&D
- Develop Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement (CME) systems
for each demonstration site, including ballast water sampling
equipment and training.
- Form Regional Task Force (RTF's), support RTF meetings and
study tours to the demonstration sites by personnel from neighbouring
- Identify long term economic instruments that can be used to
resource in country ballast water management arrangements.
- Hold a Strategic Directions/Global Donor Conference to identify
and secure donors for subsequent phase of the programme.